The Line of Control was created after 1947 when India and Pakistan gained their independence from the British Empire. The main line of control forms the border between Indian and Pakistani territory. It was named after an 1871 battle between the British Indian Army and the Sikh Indian Army during the third Anglo-Sikh War.
During this conflict, British Indian Army used a line of retreat at Haji Pir Pass. This strategic line of defence is located at a height of over 4,000 metres above sea level. This is the highest point in Pakistan and its separation from Indian territory can be considered a milestone in the creation of India and Pakistan.
The Line of Control is divided into three parts.
History of Pakistan
The history of Pakistan goes back to the 19th Century when the forces of the East India Company had conquered most of the Indian sub-continent. Pakistan was founded in 1947 as an Islamic homeland, and came into existence following a referendum where over three million Muslim settlers voted to create the state. The state was named after Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the only leader from a non-Arab ethnic group to head a Muslim state.
The ideology which led to the creation of Pakistan was based upon the concept of a welfare state. Jinnah was an advocate of democracy, human rights and national unity.
Geography of Pakistan
Pakistan lies in South Asia, comprising mostly of the Indian subcontinent. It is the seventh largest country in the world, with a total area of about 832,856 square kilometres. Its total population is 180.5 million, of which 85.9 million are urban, making Pakistan the seventh largest urban country in the world.
Pakistan is bordered by India to the north and west, Afghanistan to the east and south and by the Arabian Sea to the west. The mountainous regions to the south and east are home to the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges, and the Indus and Karakoram mountain rivers (also known as the Indus-Sutlej Rivers).
Climate of Pakistan
- The Pakistan was divided into smaller territories after the collapse of British rule:
- The Pakistan consisted of two territories: East and West Pakistan.
- The East Pakistan was at one time East Bengal and now Bangaldesh.
- The West Pakistan was at one time West Bengal and now Bangladesh.
- This “Two provinces” model of Pakistan was created after 1947 to eliminate ethnic tension, reduce religious bias and bring about political stability.
- Pakistan emerged as a country of over a hundred million people.
Significance of Bangladesh:
- In 1971, the Pakistan army decided to attack Bangladesh.
- The army decided to attack Bangladesh in order to defeat East Pakistan.
- This was not without the official backing of the Indian government as the India supported Pakistan’s decision.
Economy of Pakistan
Pakistan is one of the most populous countries in the world with a population of around 191 million, followed by China with 1.36 billion. Pakistan is the 28th largest country in the world in terms of land area. The total area of Pakistan is 24 million square kilometres. Karachi is the largest city in Pakistan in terms of area.
Pakistani People and Culture
Pakistani people are known as “tigers” by everyone. Pakistanis are well known for their strength, bravery, determination and perseverance. Pakistanis are very independent and having a high level of loyalty, respect and sense of honor for their country.
Pakistani people are very open-minded and very patriotic towards their country. This has helped Pakistan to stand on its own feet in the current situation.
Education in Pakistan
Education is comparatively cheaper in Pakistan, compulsory from grades 1-12. According to local news, Pakistan spends almost US$ 3 billion (Rs 18.5 billion) every year on primary education and has over 36 million students enrolled. Of this number, 20 million students are enrolled in the primary level, while 27 million in the secondary level.
What we teach our children: Speaking English, math, Science, computers, religion, geography, and Urdu.
Teachers: There are over 41 million teachers in Pakistan and their annual salaries average US$ 220.
Activities in Pakistan
A popular pastime for students to complete after a full day of studying is playing cricket. The government, has been trying to curb this tradition, banning ball-based sports in schools, arguing they are too dangerous for children.